Tuesday, March 24, 2020
How To Write A High-Quality Book Critique Paper? Paper Nowadays, writing book critique paper is one of the most common and important academic assignments at the educational facilities of all levels.Ã It is directed to make students think critically. It also helps them to consistently and accurately express their thoughts about the novels they read. Consequently, students start to understand the value of the book to the audience.Ã A good critique paper performs a role of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s press kit because it involves all its valid characteristics. Also, before reading the text, the majority of readers get acquainted with its critique first. After that, people usually decide whether the novel is actually worth reading. Thus, such analysis has a crucial impact on the literary destiny of each book. When students and writers get assigned to write a critique paper on the specific text, they frequently mix it up with its review. They simply tend to summarize the overall plot instead of trying to analyze it. Such approach is a huge mistak e. To prevent this, you have to be aware of a difference between these two concepts. Specifically, a book review is based on the summary of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s plot.Ã It aims at briefly retelling the main points and events of the story. In contrast to the book review, critique paper is focused on the direct analysis and evaluation of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s content. Steps of Creating a Powerful Book Critique Essay Summary Before you start writing a book critique paper, you should read the novel and summarize its key points. Once you have finished with this, you will develop an overall opinion about this story. Also, based on the personal impression, you will be able to write a good reflection in your paper. Making notes of the main points will help you to write your paper consistently. This simple trick will make your critique well-organized. The Main Idea of Writing We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A High-Quality Book Critique Paper? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A High-Quality Book Critique Paper? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A High-Quality Book Critique Paper? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Next important step of writing such paper is to identify what was the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal when he or she was writing this text. It will help you to determine the key value of the book that you criticize. Once you identified the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea in this story, you need to analyze it properly.Ã To do so, you can provide answers to the following questions: Does the book present the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea clearly? Is the main idea of the story relevant to the audience? In what ways? How does the author develop his or her ideas throughout the novel? Did the writer manage to implement his or her goal of writing this book? How does the story unfold the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s message? What are the main arguments that support writerÃ¢â¬â¢s idea in the book? WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Biography If you decide to research the personal background of the author, you will be able to discover his or her own thoughts and circumstances that influenced the particular story. Thus, you will be able to reveal the main issues that the author tended to raise in the novel and a message he or she wanted to convey to the readers. Analysis of the Style Another important step in writing a book critique is a profound analysis of its writing style. At this phase, you should consider the following items: Is the novel easy and readable? Does the author clearly highlight events in it? Does the writing style of the book make reading process more interesting? Valid Parts of a Book Critique Paper Similarly to any other solid academic papers, you should structure this type of work. Separate it into such main parts as introduction, body, and conclusion. However, you should not forget that this type of written work requires the appropriate writing of each section. Here are some recommendations for writing introduction, body and conclusive part of the book critique paper: The Introduction In the first part of your evaluation, you should provide the title of the novel and the name of its author. After that, you have to present the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea and discuss the relevance of the story to the audience. The final statement of your introductory part should be focused on your opinion of this story. You will subsequently develop this point and argue it in your essay.Ã This statement will become the thesis of your assignment. The Body Despite the fact that such paper should not be focused on the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s summary, some its part will make a sense in your assignment. The reader of your critique should be generally aware of the plot of the novel. They need to know it so understand your evaluation of the work.Ã You are completely eligible to start the body part of your analysis summarizing the key events and points of the novel. Once you finished a summary of the book, you need to start working on the evaluation of the plot. This is the most critical component of your entire paper. To make it accurate, you should discuss the following points: Consider whether events in the plot are presented in a logical consistency; Describe the novel characters, evaluate their personalities and behaviors. What impression did they have on you? Analyze the language style of the novel. Discuss stylistic devices the writer used in the text. How do they express his or her ideas? The next stage implies a direct analysis and evaluation of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea in the story. Discuss it and mention how it may relate to the readers. What is the value of the main idea? Did the author manage to prove it? Support your analysis using text examples. Make sure you mentioned the values the author tended to convey to the audience through the novel. What does it teach people? What are its aspects the society should be aware of? Share your personal thoughts regarding the book. Talk about its strength and weaknesses. How did the novel affect your mind? The Conclusion This is the final paragraphs of your critique. Here, you should sum up you major points from the book and restate writerÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis. Then, provide your own thoughts regarding the work. Say whether you agree with the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the novel. Also, mention whether you recommend reading this book to others.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Music in the 60s Free Online Research Papers In a farm field located in Sullivan County, in the township of Bethel, New York, approximately 400,000 young people gathered to form a community based on some pretty simple philosophies (Rolin 204). Their call was not for violent revolution or anarchy but rather for peace in the world and love of neighbor. The glue that held this community together was the music. The outdoor concert at Woodstock, held August 15 Ã¢â¬â 17, 1969 marked the end of a decade that had seen the coming of age of a group of people destined to become the leaders of this country. The young people of the sixties was a generation that had experienced the loss of charismatic leaders such as the Kennedy brothers and Martin Luther King Jr., the rebellion against a war in a far off place with city names that most Americans could not pronounce, and the claim by Black Americans that they too desired and deserved the dream that was embraced and realized by most White Americans. The official Woodstock Music and Art Fair program probably put it best by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"What weÃ¢â¬â¢re doing here is celebrating, and at the same time weÃ¢â¬â¢re checking each other out, and what we see is a bunch of fools rushing in where angels fear to tread. And hooray for us; weÃ¢ â¬â¢ve been fearful angels too longÃ¢â¬ (Curry 3). The angels of the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s had become the movers and shakers of the next decade. An example of the affect of rock music on the lives of young people comes from Bunny Gibson who was born in 1946 and lived in Darby, Pennsylvania. Her desire was to be on the television show Ã¢â¬Å"American Bandstand.Ã¢â¬ She talks about her experience and how rock music changed life for her and so many others her age. Ã¢â¬Å"Even on Bandstand we had to conform. We had a strict dress code. The guys all had crew cuts and wore ties and jackets. All of the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ dresses had to come up high on the neck and could not reveal too much. I think that really helped change the image of rock and roll. How could rock and roll be the devilÃ¢â¬â¢s music when all of the kids on Bandstand looked so nice and clean? I think the show really helped to smooth over the image of rock and roll and to bring it into the mainstream. In the fifties we were supposed to listen to our parents and not really have a lot of thoughts of our own. We were supposed to do what we were told, which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really allow for much freedom. But like me, a lot of teenagers wanted to be able to find things out for ourselves: who we were inside, what we liked, what we wanted to do. Rock and roll was music from the heart and the soul that gave us a feeling of freedom. And once we got that freedom, it was like the parents really lost their control over usÃ¢â¬ (Jennings 147). The legacy of people like Bunny Gibson lives on through the music that reflected a change in the values of American culture and even in 2006 touches the lives of young people. While it cannot be shown that the music of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s shaped the cultural and political scene of the time, it can be shown that the music did reflect the times and did enhance the sensitivity and awareness of young people to the world in which they lived. Its form was indicative of the desire to break loose from the strict moral and philosophical conservatism that had prevailed since the end of World War II. Ã¢â¬Å"1960Ã¢â¬â¢s music not only deepened rock and rolls ability to work as a music of rebellion, disobedience and disrespect- often worthy and noble impulses that were reenacted in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s punk and are still acted out in much of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s best (and worst) rap and heavy-metal music- but also made plain that pop music had become capable of expressing emotional and thematic truths that were as rich and consequential as anything contemporary film or literature had to offer. In other words, the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s proved that rock is anything but trivial music; it does have impact, and at its worthiest, it still aims to threaten, to draw boundaries, to defy and to win young people over to its view and its ethos.Ã¢â¬ (Gilmore 67) In 1960 John F. Kennedy was elected to the U.S. Presidency. At the time, he was the youngest person ever elected to the office. He began his presidency with a challenge to the American people in his inaugural address to, Ã¢â¬Å"ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your countryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Anderson 78). To all the audience attending the ceremony and those watching on television, this new, young president embodied a fresh spirit, new ideas, dedication, and hope for great things to come. Rock music began to reflect this call service, to question the status quo and the struggle for identity. The rise of the Beatles as pop icons represented the beginning of this change. Their long hair, unique dress and music began to challenge the traditional musical and celebrity formulas of the day. Tragically on November 22, 1963 President Kennedy lost his life to a bullet from the rifle of an assassin (Anderson 129). Robert Kennedy, who had served as Attorney General during the Presidency of his brother John Kennedy, began his own run for the presidency in 1968. He too lost his life to the bullet of an assassin and in that same year Martin Luther King Jr. was also shot and killed. All three of these men represented significant change to the American cultural landscape and their loss, while grievous, also emboldened many young people to take up the causes they had championed. In Dick HollerÃ¢â¬â¢s 1968 song, Ã¢â¬Å"Abraham, Martin and JohnÃ¢â¬ the lyrics mourn the loss of these leaders in a folk/rock ballad that was originally recorded by Dion who was best known for such hits of the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s as Ã¢â¬Å"Runaround Sue.Ã¢â¬ This song celebrated the accomplishments of these leaders who Ã¢â¬Å"freed a lot of people.Ã¢â¬ Even the artists of the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s were embracing the changing landscape of American culture. In addition the 1968 Rolling Stones song Ã¢â¬Å"Street Fighting ManÃ¢â¬ was banned on many radio stations after the assassinations for fear that it would inflame emotions and lead to riots. In the 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s it is difficult to identify persons who have influenced American life as much as those already mentioned. Perhaps one person, although not American, that has had an indirect impact on America was Nelson Mandela of South Africa. Mandela was an outspoken opponent to apartheid in his country. Without MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and that of others like Steven Biko the world may have never come to realize the tragedy that was life in South Africa. The Black majority in the country lived in destitution and poverty for many years and their plight was worsened by the White minority who occupied the seats of power and control. As a result of Nelson MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts and the pressure brought to bear by other countries on the economy of South Africa the chains of apartheid were broken (Jennings 225). On his album Ã¢â¬Å"GracelandÃ¢â¬ released in 1986 Paul Simon brought further attention to the plight of the people of South Africa by recording much of the album i n South Africa featuring the voices of the South African group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. The involvement of the United States in the war in Vietnam (1963 1973) sparked artists to write songs expressing either their support or opposition to the conflict. In 1966, approximately 120 pro-war songs were recorded by country-western singers (Anderson 51). By the time of the Gulf of Tonkin incident and the withdrawal of America from Vietnam in 1973 Rolling Stone Magazine determined that almost seventy percent of the five star albums in rock and roll were released during this period (Anderson 51). Folk musicians such as Pete Seeger and Peter Yarrow began to write songs that protested American involvement in the war (Anderson 52). Younger folk singers began to join the cause and the voices of Joan Baez and Bob Dylan began to be heard (Anderson 53). Soon the sound of electronic guitars and drums joined the chorus and songs such as Ã¢â¬Å"Eve of DestructionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Unknown SoldierÃ¢â¬ by the Doors began to be heard over the radio (Anderson 58). Finally, perhaps one of the best known anti war songs of the decade was performed at Woodstock by Country Joe and the Fish entitled Ã¢â¬Å"I Feel Like IÃ¢â¬â¢m FixinÃ¢â¬â¢ to Die RagÃ¢â¬ . In this song the group made the war sound like a Ã¢â¬Å"carnival farceÃ¢â¬ with a chorus of: Ã¢â¬Å"And itÃ¢â¬â¢s one, two, three What are we fighting for, DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask me I donÃ¢â¬â¢t give a damn, Next stop is Viet Nam. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s five, six, seven Open up the pearly gates. Well, there ainÃ¢â¬â¢t no time to wonder why, Whoopee weÃ¢â¬â¢re all gonna die. (Anderson 57)Ã¢â¬ By the end of the decade there were a multitude of songs that sought peace such as John LennonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Give Peace a ChanceÃ¢â¬ and Cat StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Peace Train.Ã¢â¬ Other songs written to protest the war included Ã¢â¬Å"Last Night I Had the Strangest DreamÃ¢â¬ recorded by Mason Profitt, Ã¢â¬Å"Get TogetherÃ¢â¬ written by Chet Powers, Ã¢â¬Å"AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s ResaurantÃ¢â¬ written by Arlo Guthrie and Ã¢â¬Å"Ball of ConfusionÃ¢â¬ recorded by The Temptations. Neil Young wrote and delivered with his song Ã¢â¬Å"OhioÃ¢â¬ which told the story of the killing of innocent college students at Kent State University by National Guard troops trying to break up a war protest. While the song told that story, the lyrics also called for action on the part of people to stop the madness. Ã¢â¬Å"Gotta get down to it Soldiers are gunning us down, Should have been done long ago What if you knew her And found her dead on the ground How can you run when you knowÃ¢â¬ (Anderson 58). On September 11, 2003 terrorists hijacked three airliners. Two were used as missiles to destroy the World Trade Towers in New York City. Approximately 3,000 people lost their lives in the terrorist attack. As a result of these attacks a decision was made by our nations leaders to attack Iraq. As of this time, we are still occupying that country and to many it appears that we have gotten ourselves into a similar situation as the conflict in Vietnam during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. Once again we have seen the sound of music supporting and opposing this war. In the area of rock music some of the champions of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s have again come out with anti war songs. Neil Young wrote a song entitled Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Impeach the PresidentÃ¢â¬ and John Fogerty of Credence Clearwater Revival fame released a song entitled Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ ©j Vu (All Over Again). In this dssong Mr. Fogerty laments that the rhetoric being heard today for this war is much the same as it was during the Vietnam conflict. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you hear Ã¢â¬Ëem talkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëbout it on the radio Did you stop to read the writing on the wall Did that voice inside you say IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen this all before ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like DÃ ©j Vu all over againÃ¢â¬ (Fogerty) Younger artists have joined their voices in the chorus to protest the actions of our government in this war including Pearl Jam in their song Ã¢â¬Å"World Wide SuicideÃ¢â¬ and John Mayer in his song Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting on the World to Change.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Now, if we had the power To bring our neighbors home from war They would have never missed a Christmas No more ribbons on the door And when you trust your television What you get is what you got Cause when they own the information They can bend it all they wantÃ¢â¬ (Mayer). This last piece almost seems like a lament that young people today feel so powerless but yet they will one day be the ones to assume leadership of the world and so they wait for the world to change. Other recent offerings that protest the war include Ã¢â¬Å"WarÃ¢â¬ recorded by Outkast, Ã¢â¬Å"Bomb the WorldÃ¢â¬ recorded by Spearhead, Ã¢â¬Å"EmpireÃ¢â¬ recorded by Dar Williams, Ã¢â¬Å"I Want My Country BackÃ¢â¬ recorded by Greg Brown and Ã¢â¬Å"No Bomb is SmartÃ¢â¬ recorded by Sonia Rutston. During the decade of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s our country struggled with itÃ¢â¬â¢s own sins in the area of discrimination. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Black citizens had been denied many basic freedoms that White America took for granted. A movement began to claim those rights for Black Americans and many of the rallies and protests were led by songs that celebrated the Negro Spiritual. Songs such as Ã¢â¬Å"We Shall OvercomeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"AinÃ¢â¬â¢t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me AroundÃ¢â¬ became cries for justice and freedom for a group of people that had little for decades. Once again many folk artists lifted up the plight of the disenfranchised in their songs. Bob Dylan wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Blowing in the WindÃ¢â¬ and David Arkin wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Black and WhiteÃ¢â¬ to celebrate the coming together of races for mutual growth. Over the years our country realized that it was time to repent and laws were passed to assure that all people in this country would have the legal right to basic freedom s such as voting and property ownership (The Sixties: The Decade That Changed America). We have come a long way in the area of civil rights, but the truth be known, we still have a long way to go. One only needs to be aware of the number of people in our country that live in poverty or are homeless to recognize that the work is not completed. Even today we have rock artists that sing about the plight of the poor and the disenfranchised. Talib Kweli in his song Ã¢â¬Å"Get ByÃ¢â¬ talks about what it takes to make it from day to day in America today (Kweli). Wyclef Jean laments the plight of minority people in the city in his song entitiled Ã¢â¬Å"DialloÃ¢â¬ (Jean). Rock music in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s enhanced the changes that were brought about by a generation that was not satisfied with the status quo and demanded change and embraced being involved in that change. A summation of the impact this music had and is having is best summed up by Mikal Gilmore in an article written for Rolling Stone Magazine in 1990. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦it is also true that rock has lost much of its political and social convictions in recent years, and that it is now a music that can accommodate ugly views of sexism and racism, and that perhaps too much of it has helped spread an unthinking affection for alcohol and drugs. To put it differently, 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s rock didnÃ¢â¬â¢t save the world- maybe didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even change the world enough- but it fought good battles and it enriched a progressive struggle that is far from finished, and far from lost. In the end, rock and youth culture met with considerable and determined opposition- and that opposition is still formidable. But for a moment, in the middle of a momentous decade, rock roll was heroic enough to tell us the essential fact of our time: that we were finally on our own, and that we were Ã¢â¬Ëwith no direction home.Ã¢â¬â¢ In some ways, the most important music since that time has struggled either to deny that bold truth or to follow its chilling and liberating implications to their bravest and most surprising endsÃ¢â¬ (Gilmore 67). WORKS CITED Anderson, Catherine Corley. John R. Kennedy: Young Peoples President. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1991. Anderson, Terry. Ã¢â¬Å"American Popular Music and the War in Vietnam.Ã¢â¬ Peace Change, Volume 11. Issue 2 (1986): 51 Ã¢â¬â 65. Curry, Jack. Woodstock: The Summer of Our Lives. New York: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989. Fogerty, John. Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ ©j Vu (All Over Again).Ã¢â¬ DÃ ©j Vu All Over Again. Geffen, 2004. Gilmore, Mikal. Ã¢â¬Å"60s.Ã¢â¬ Rolling Stone 23 Aug. 1990. 61 Ã¢â¬â 67. Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. Jean, Wyclef. Ã¢â¬Å"Diallo.Ã¢â¬ The Ecleftic: 2 Sides II a Book, Rawkus, 2000. Jennings, Peter, and Todd Brewster. The Century for Young People. New York: Random House, 1999. Kweli, Talib. Ã¢â¬Å"Get By.Ã¢â¬ Quality, Rawkus, 2002. Mayer, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting On the World to Change.Ã¢â¬ Continuum. Columbia, 2006. Rolin, Lucy. Twentieth-Century Teen Culture by the Decades. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"The Sixties: The Decade That Changed America.Ã¢â¬ NBC News Video. For use with February 11, 1994, Junior Scholastic and Scholastic News. Research Papers on Music in the 60sHip-Hop is ArtWhere Wild and West MeetEffects of Television Violence on Children19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyQuebec and CanadaAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XCapital Punishment
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Drug Seizure Laws - Assignment Example However in the pursuit of such forfeiture, care must be taken to ensure that those who are innocent do not unfairly suffer the same consequences. Introduction The application of the laws that ensure that the profits or benefits obtained from criminal enterprise are forfeited by the state brings about with it a myriad of challenges and obstacles. The most difficult one is working out exactly what parts of this benefit can be directly linked to the drug-associated criminal activity and which parts are not. Care must be taken to ensure that those who may have inadvertently and innocently found themselves assisting in the commission of such crime are absolved of their involvement and that they do not suffer unduly due to the activities others, especially when it can be proven that they had no knowledge of it and did actively participate. The process of such determination is purely in the hands of the investigators and it is their responsibility to ensure that those who are innocent do no t suffer while at the same time ensuring that as much as possible of the proceeds of such crime is recoverable and recovered. 1. If a house was rented but was found to be used for illegal drug-related activities, it can still be seized by the authorities since it was being used in the commission of a drug-related crime under the civil forfeiture regulations. Under these regulations the police have the right to seize any such properties (Silveira, 2010). The detail of exactly how this happens varies from State to State. In Minnesota for example the police are supposed to notify the landlord if drugs valued at more than $100 are found in a rented property. The landlord is then expected to get the tenant to vacate the property. If that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen and a second seizure of drugs takes place then the property is liable to judicial forfeiture. Similarly if a stash of drugs valued at over $1,000 is found at a rented property it may also be seized (Pirius, 2010). In a case reported in Orange County, Southern California, a Tony JalaliÃ¢â¬â¢s property was seized after it was found to be used for illegal drug-related activities (Bullock & Salzman, 2013). 2. If the car belongs to a relative, the car is still liable for civil forfeiture. A car that is used for the committing of a drug-related offence and especially one that is used as a possible means of escape from lawful arrest is liable for forfeiture regardless of whether the person that was using it at the time was the legal owner or not. According to the Minnesota Forfeiture laws, as long as the retail value of the drugs is $75, the vehicle is still forfeitable. In Court, the legal owner would have to prove that they have a defense against the forfeiture or that seizure of the vehicle would cause undue hardship to the members of the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s family for the vehicle to be released back to them (Pirius, 2010).In many cases, proceeds from the sale of vehicles collected under the drug-related seizure laws are usually ploughed into the operations of law enforcement so it is their interest to seize as many of these as possible as it goes directly to their budget, creating an incentive for the policemen to seize such vehicles.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The Annexation of Hawaii - Essay Example The process itself was rocky indeed, being ultimately accomplished only after years of international negotiation, domestic debate, and political maneuvering. The importance of the event was significant enough in its day, but it would prove even more important half a century later. The annexation of the territory that would eventually become the fiftieth state was far from easy. The events preceding the annexation of Hawaii were a mixture of economic and political dynamics that had been brewing for several decades. Those circumstances would ultimately be brought to a clear conclusion by the outbreak of the Spanish-American War. The economic background immediately preceding the debate over annexing Hawaii centered around one concept; free trade. Initially, "[t]he American approach to Hawaii, like that to China or to the Pacific coast of North America, was a matter of private enterprise, without government intervention" (Best & Johnson 79). As more American and foreign investment poured into Hawaii, however, it became clear that there would have to be some form of public policy steps taken to address the growing concerns regarding commerce, immigration, and the political ramifications in the Kingdom of Hawaii. One problem was that the American sugar industry had the protection of tariffs, and the Hawaiian economy was becoming more and more dependent on the American markets. This resulted in a natural confluence of interests pointing toward annexation, particularly after Hawaii was given a favored trade status. That said, however, "[t]here was no unified 'voice of business' calling for annexation, not even in Hawaii...and in the United States beet and cane sugar producers, some refiners, and others argued against incorporation of Hawaii into the union. It can probably be safely said that the great majority of American businessmen were quite indifferent to the admission of Hawaii..." (Best & Johnson 142). Politically, there was the ever-present debate between those who did not want to entangle the United States in matters beyond its immediate borders and those with a more expansionist view. This debate was one of the key reasons that annexation took so long to accomplish; having seen the first treaty efforts as early as 1854 and not ultimately accomplishing the goal until some forty-four years later. Charges of American imperialism were raised, against which the expansionists countered with the protection of strategic national interests. The debate was rhetorical and theoretical until one foreign policy event made everything important: The Spanish-American War. As Fletcher notes: Among these unresolved forces and policies, the Spanish-American War served as a kind of catalyst... Although the war was only indirectly brought about by Pacific or Far Eastern factors, it profoundly influenced developments in that part of the world through the largely unplanned American annexation of the Philippines... The war also led at once to the annexation of Hawaii..." (Pletcher 258) Considering the natural convergence of economic and political issues that had been building from early in the 19th Century, when the war broke out and America realized its vital interests in Asia were
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Religious Justifications For Terrorism Produce More Terrorist Acts Politics Essay Terror is violence or threat of violence perpetrated by private individuals or small groups from the hegemonic strata against members of negative reference groups and that enjoys the tacit approval if not active participation of members of the security forces. A terrorist is an individual who carries out or threatens to carryout acts of terror, for hire or not for hire. The act of harming or killing others, who are direct enemies or innocent victims, may be for monetary gain, gain of group principle, gain of personal principle, or any combination. Terrorism is an international problem with new terrorists groups emerging all over the world and the governments had little success to resolve the issues in which terrorism is used. Religious terrorism has become a tool for the political terrorism in the modern world. Religious terrorists are more dangerous than the national terrorists as they target mostly the people than a nation. It is referred to holy or sacred terror and confined not only to Islam but also includes Jews in Israel, Sikh terrorists in India and few other groups in United States. History shows that people have involved in violence to promote their religious belief. Thus religious belief and willingness of people to die for their religion has lead to many wars for centuries. Islamic terrorism dominates the world in the 21st century and caused many deadly acts in the world. Most of the religious terrorists group fight for the Islamic belief and act violently against the people who dont believe Islam. Some of the main religious terrorists groups are listed below. Al-Qaeda is the worlds most dangerous terrorists group and a major threat for United States. They were responsible for the attacks on world trade centre, Khobar Tower residence In Saudi, Bali bombings, U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and many more violent acts throughout the world. Islamic terrorism also caused serious problems in India. Destruction of Babri Masjid caused many serious problems in India. Hindus destroyed the Mosque because the location of the building was the birth place of Lord Ram and this is root cause for the further terrorist acts in India. This essay argues that the religious justifications for terrorism cause more terrorists acts with Al-Qaeda and Lashkar-E-Toiba taken as an example for religious terrorists group. There are different religions in the world with different ideologies formed around governments. Extremists in the religion provoke the people to act violently and cause terrorism in a society. Many terrorists actions are committed in the name of religion, but no religion sponsor the act of terrorism. Ramzi Ahmad Yousef, Islamic terrorist was involved in much violence and responsible for the World Trade Centre bombing. This incident would later turn out to not be the only attack on the World Trade Centre. Many Islamic militants act individually and it is hard to trace them because not every member of the Islamic faith is a terrorist. Religious belief and its justification resulted in many terrorists attacks in India, Unites States, Israel and Kenya. India and Israel faced more problems and terrorist activities continue to grow killing thousands of innocent people every year. The principle of Religious terrorist is that their violent acts from feelings of rage and hatred reinforced by their belief system. Thus the terrorists groups justify their violence in the name of god and they are the followers of God. But all terrorist groups and countries argue that their enemy are evil, corrupt, uncivilized, and subhuman and that it is only through violence that peace and prosperity for all begin. Americas done this to justify the invasion and attacks on Iraq. Al Qaeda has done this to justify their terrorist attacks on Unites States and England. In return, terrorists act will continue to justify for some reasons and result in massive terrorism acts. Hafiz Saeed, a Islam Scholar, stated that the purpose of Jihad is to carry out a sustained struggle for Islam dominance in the world and to eliminate all evil forces. He considers India, Israel and United States to be his major enemies and has threatened to launch Fidayeen (suicide squad) attacks on American interests too. THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN TERRORISM: Militant Islamic Beliefs Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Jihad (holy war) ÃËÃ ¬Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬ ¡ÃËÃËÃ ¯ is the revolutionary struggle to seize power of the good of all humanity and in the last resort an armed struggle. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Universal Jihad against the modern Jahiliyyah ÃËÃ ¬ÃËÃâ¢Ã¢â¬ ¡Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ãâ¢Ã ÃËÃ © (ignorant barbarism) is required. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Western governments contain the possibility of evil, oppression, and tyranny. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Democracy (in which the people usurp Gods rule) is Jahiliyyah. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ All westernized forms of government usurp Gods authority. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Secular so-called Muslim rulers have departed from God and Gods law. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Muslims are duty-bound to overthrow every corrupt secular dictator. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Jihad against corrupt Muslim rulers is necessary..(ISLAM-EID PAPER) AL-QAEDA-THE ISLAMIC TERRORIST GROUP The origins of Al Qaeda are rooted in the Afghanistan resistance to the Russian invasion from 1979 to 1989. Osama, belong to millionaire family moved to Afghan in 1980s to unite Muslims. In 1992, he aimed to attack United States and argued that they not only supported Israel but also kept Arab regimes in power that did not follow Islamic beliefs. In 1998, Al-Qaeda joined with Egyptian Islamic Jihad and the leaders of the group published a fatwa which states Ruling to kill Americans and their allies. Their role is to kill all Americans and spread Islam through out the world. There is no rule in the Quran to kill the people but the extremists convince the act in the name of the religion. In the book Messages to the world where Osama states, What are we calling you to? The first thing that we are calling you to is Islam. It is the religion of the Unity of God, sincerity, the best of manners, righteousness, mercy, honour, purity, and piety. It is the religion of showing kindness to other s, establishing justice between them. His statements strongly prove that he wants to threaten the non believers of Islam and expel the westerners and non Muslims from his region. He used terrorism as a tool and religion as a reason to achieve his goal. Even many Muslims were killed in the world trade centre attack and Osama justified by saying that they are not Muslims and a real Muslim should not stay long in the land of infidels. AL-QAEDA MOTIVATES OTHER TERRORIST GROUPS: Al-Qaedas terrorists activities includes hijacking, bombing, suicide attacks, kidnapping and assassinations. They target mostly public buildings, embassies, modern Muslim monuments so they can make a powerful impact among the public. Former CIA Director George J. Tenet states, Osama Bin Ladens organization and other terrorist groups are placing increased emphasis on developing surrogates to carry out attacks in an effort to avoid detection. Al-Qaedas activities motivate many Muslim terrorists organization to perform terrorist attacks. Like Egyptian Islamic Jihad has linked to Al-Qaeda has grown in to a big group and has operative locations in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Lebanon and Europe. Sunni Muslim extremists have grown and have their presence in North Africa, Palestine, Pakistan and Central Asia. The state government sponsor those people to perform terrorists acts against United States. Some of the major Al-Qaedas attacks linked to car bombings in Saudi Arabia and Kenya, Bali bombing s, US embassy bombings, attacks on World Trade centre and Pentagon. Osama said Al-Qaida decided to destroy World Trade Centre and listed several factors that motivated the attack, including frustration over the American policies. He said Israels bombing attacks on Beirut in 1982 gave him the idea of hijacking the flights. Al-Qaeda proved their strength by these attacks and thus many terrorists organizations acted violently with the support of Al-Qaeda. ISLAMIC TERRORISM IN INDIA: India is a Hindu populated country and Muslims were minority. The extremists in the country decided to secularize and act against the minority Muslims. Many actions were taken against Indian Muslims including the elimination of Muslim education system of Madrassas. Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh implemented policies for cow protection against the beef eating Muslims. This further angered the Muslim community in India and several communities were formed to act against the Indian government. Extremism amongst the Hindu community is explained or justified by the existence of Muslim extremism, especially as allegedly exported by Pakistan. Babri Masjid mosque was first constructed by Emperor Babar in Ayodhya and was destroyed on December 6, 1992 by Hindu nationalists which followed by waves of violence in India. The minority Muslims were beaten, Killed and their houses were set fired. The issue started in 1527 when Babar defeated the Hindu King, destroying the temple and constructed a mosque in Ayodhya. During the British rule in 1853, a riot broke out between Hindus and Muslims and the British government erected a fence dividing the worship area. In 1949, both the communities moved the court claiming ownership of the land and signed a petition on 1950. The solution for the verdict was announced on October 2010. During the period innocent Hindus and Muslims faced many problems as the extremists performed many riots. Riots around India caused the death of 2000 Muslims and were severe in Mumbai organised by Shiva Sena, a regional Hindu extremists. MUSLIM REACTIONS FOR THE BABRI MASJID ISSUE: Muslim community increasingly tended to react by violent and politically inspired action that meets the terrorism. The terrorism actions are generated from Kashmir and speeded through out the country. Following the destruction of the Mosque, the Muslim extremists targeted Mumbai and bombed the city in several places. It was the worst terrorists act in India killing 257 people and 1000 were injured. Muslim terrorist, Dawood Ibrahim was suspected for the Mumbai attack. He was claimed to be assisted by Pakistans ISI and explosives were provided to him. But Ibrahim has never been brought to trial; however the bombings were certainly conducted by the Indian Muslims and provoked other Muslims in India to act against Hindus. Indian Muslims also performed many alleged actions by bombing trains and attacks on Hindu political buildings. The religious extremists began to act violently throughout the country and the Hindu-Muslim controversy soon began to the International concentration. According to B. Raman, a former additional secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat, the Jihadi terrorism has been forming since Ayodhya issue, not only in Mumbai but also in other states like Tamil Nadu, Kerala, New Delhi and Andhra Pradesh. India focussed only in Kashmir terrorism and did not pay attention to the terrorism that threatens other regions of India. Three major terrorists group namely Lashkar-e-Toiba(LeT), Ahl-e-hadith and Students Islamic Movement of India(SIMI) has emerged and waged many terrorists attacks in India. LASHKAR-E-TOIBA(LeT) A THREAT TO INDIA: (Mumbai paper) LeT was announced as a terrorists group by the Indian government as they attacked India in the name of Muslim religion. India came fourth next to Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan in terms of casualties of terrorist attack. LeT, meaning army of the pure has been active since 1993. In 1990s it was argued that LeT was funded by ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) and PIA (Pakistan Intelligence Service). In return LeT should kill Hindus in Jammu and Kashmir and to train Muslim extremists on Indian soil. But Pakistans government has repeatedly denied allegations of supporting terrorism. Until it was banned in Pakistan in 2002, LeT claimed responsibility for many attacks. In 2000, three people were killed during the attack at Delhis Red Fort, Srinagar airport attack in 2001 killing five people and an attack against Indian border security forces in 2002 killing four people. In 2008, LeT used Ajmal Kasab and team to wage attacks in Mumbai which killed almost 170 people and some 300 were wounded. The motivation of the attack was purely religious and to provoke conflicts between Hindus and Muslims. Hussain Haqqani, Pakistans ambassador to Washington stated that LeT is one of the most significant terrorist groups. Why are we waging jihad, is the title for LeTs agenda and it includes the restoration of Islamic rule over all parts of India. They argue that India, Israel and United States are existential enemies of Islam and seek to create a unity among the Muslim countries that surround Pakistan. LeT justifies its ideology by the Quranic verse stated, You are obligated to f ight even though it is something you do not like. Conclusion; The al Qaeda network has not been alone in the religious assault on the secular state. In the last fifteen years of the post-Cold War world, religion seems to have been connected with violence everywhere: from the World Trade Center bombings to suicide attacks in Israel and Palestine; assassinations in India, Israel, Egypt, and Algeria; nerve gas in the Tokyo subways; abortion clinic killings in Florida; and the bombing of Oklahoma Citys federal building. What unites these disparate acts of violence is their perpetrators hatred of the global reach of the modern secular state.( e scholar ship paper) REFERENCE LIST Ackerman F, Goodwin NR Dougherty LÃ The Political Economy Of Inequality.Ã Washington: Island Press; 2000. Bartels LMÃ Unequal Democracy.Ã Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2008. Burtless, G. Jencks, C. (2003).Ã American Inequality and Its Consequences.Ã Washington: The Brookings Institution. Card, D. (2009), Immigration and Inequality,Ã Economists View,Ã Feb 23. Deardorff, A. V. (1998),Ã Technology, Trade, and Increasing Inequality: Does the Cause Matter for the Cure?,Ã The University of Michigan, Michigan. Gandhy OH Baron JÃ Inequality : Its All in the Way You Look at It.Ã : Sage Publications; 1998. Gordon JB DewÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã becker Ã Unresolved Issues in the Rise of American Inequality.Ã Washington: ; 2007. Kluegal JR Smith ERÃ Beliefs About Inequality.Ã Newyork: Aldine De Gruyter; 1986. Neckerman, K. M. Torche, F. (2007).Ã Inequality: Causes and Consequences.Ã Newyork: 1Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy. Rosenthal, S. (2009), Inequality: The Root Source of Sickness in America,dissidentvoice,Ã Nov 3,. .
Saturday, January 18, 2020
English proverbs 1. When the going gets tough, the tough get going. Ã¢â¬ Strong people don't give up when they come across challenges. They just work harder. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"No man is an island. Ã¢â¬ You can't live completely independently. Everyone needs help from other people. 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Fortune favors the bold. Ã¢â¬ People who bravely go after what they want are more successful than people who try to live safely. 4. Ã¢â¬Å"People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. Ã¢â¬ Don't criticize other people if you're not perfect yourself. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst. Ã¢â¬ This seems pretty clear 6. Ã¢â¬Å"Better late than never. Ã¢â¬ This one's clear, too. 7. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no place like home. Ã¢â¬ Your own home is the most comfortable place to be. 8. Ã¢â¬Å"Discretion is the greater part of valor. Ã¢â¬ Sometimes it's important to know when to give up and run away, instead of always acting brave and maybe getting hurt. 9. Ã¢â¬Å"The early bird catches the worm. Ã¢â¬ You should wake up and start work early if you want to succeed. 10. Ã¢â¬Å"Never look a gift horse in the mouth. Ã¢â¬ If someone offers you a gift, don't question it. 11. Ã¢â¬Å"You can't make an omelet without breaking a few eggs. When you try to do something great, you'll probably make a few people annoyed or angry. Don't worry about those people; just focus on the good results. 12. Ã¢â¬Å"God helps those who help themselves. Ã¢â¬ Don't just wait for good things to happen to you. Work hard to achieve your goals. 13. Ã¢â¬Å"One man's trash is another man's treasure. Ã¢â¬ Different people have different ideas about what's valuable. 14. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no time like the present. Ã¢â¬ If you need to do something, don't wait until later. Do it now. 15. Ã¢â¬Å"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.Different people have different ideas about what's beautiful. 16. Ã¢â¬Å"Necessity is the mother of invention. Ã¢â¬ When you're really in need, you think of creative solutions to your problems. 17. Ã¢â¬Å"A penny saved is a penny earned. Ã¢â¬ Save your money. 18. Ã¢â¬Å"Familiarity breeds contempt. Ã¢â¬ When you're around someone for too long, you get tired of them and annoyed by them. 19. Ã¢â¬Å"You can't judge a book by its cover. Ã¢â¬ Things sometimes look different than they really are. A restaurant that looks old and small might have amazing food, for example. 20. Ã¢â¬Å"Good things come to those who wait. Ã¢â¬ Be patient.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Syllabus dot point| Notes| * process information from secondary sources to describe an example of hybridisation within a species and explain the purpose of this hybridisation| Hybridisation Ã¢â¬â two genetically different strains of an organism are crossed to produce offspring with desirable characteristics. i. e. cross breeding cattle to produce better meat, which will benefit for human consumption Selective breeding of sheep to produce merino sheep which are hybrids produced by interbreeding other sheep varieties.Interbreeding other varieties of corn to produce the resultant hybrid corn that was hardy and produced large fruit. | * describe the process of DNA replication and explain its significance| * DNA double helix unwinds * DNA unzips * Nucleotides are added to each single strandDNA replication ensures that the genetic information is maintained. | * explain the relationship between proteins and polypeptides| A protein is made up of one or more polypeptides.A polypeptide is m ade up of a chain of many amino acids. | * analyse information from secondary sources to outline the evidence that led to Beadle and TatumÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëone gene Ã¢â¬â one proteinÃ¢â¬â¢ hypothesis and to explain why this was altered to the Ã¢â¬Ëone gene Ã¢â¬â one polypeptideÃ¢â¬â¢ hypothesis| Beadle and Tatum concluded that for each defective enzyme there was one gene on one specific area of a chromosome that had been mutated by irradiation. This led to their Ã¢â¬Ëone gene-one enzymeÃ¢â¬â¢ theory.The Ã¢â¬Ëone gene Ã¢â¬â one enzymeÃ¢â¬â¢ hypothesis changed to the Ã¢â¬Ëone gene Ã¢â¬â one proteinÃ¢â¬â¢ hypothesis, once it was demonstrated that there are other proteins besides enzymes that are encoded by genes. Thomas Morgan's work led to a greater understanding of how genes are arranged on chromosomes and how genetic material can be exchanged (during crossing over) in meiosis. MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s experiments showed without any doubt that: * the gene for eye colour in fruit flies is located on the X chromosome, and * hereditary factors can be exchanged between the X chromosomes of an individual.Morgan experimented with fruit flies (Drosophilia melanogaster) and determined that genes are carried on chromosomes. He used crossing over to determine locations of genes. He discovered that sex chromosomes look different to each other, and that eye colour gene in Drosophilia was located on the X chromosome, leading to the discovery of sex linkage. Boveri experimented with sea urchins and showed that a complete set of chromosomes was needed for normal development and that the NUCLEUS of a cell was concerned with inheritance.He postulated that each chromosome was different, chromosomes were transferred from one generation to the next during cell division, and that chromosomes must carry the many hereditary factors. Sutton Ã¢â¬â he observed during meiosis that chromosomes behaved randomly and gametes receive only one chromosome from each pair. | Distinguish between the terms gene and allele| A gene is a section of DNA that codes for proteins that expresses itself as the phenotype for example, two genes for eye colour. An allele is the alternative forms of a gene, i. e. for eye colour, B would code for blue while b for brown. |